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Generation X, or Gen X, is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. There are no precise dates for when Generation X starts or ends, demographers and researchers typically use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid 1960s to the early 1980s. Members of Generation X were children during a time of origin X64 X86 crack societal values and as children were sometimes called the «latchkey generation», due to reduced adult supervision compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home.
In the early 1990s they were sometimes characterized as slackers, cynical and disaffected. Some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of grunge and hip hop music, and indie films. The cohort has been credited with entrepreneurial tendencies. Douglas Coupland popularized the term «Generation X» in his 1991 novel Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture.
The term «Generation X» has been used at various times throughout history to describe alienated youth. In the 1950s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately following World War II. In 1976, English musician Billy Idol used the moniker as the name for a punk rock band, based on the title of a 1965 book on popular youth culture by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett. The term acquired its modern definition after the release of Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, a 1991 novel written by Canadian author Douglas Coupland.
Demographer Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, «Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn’t have a name. 1964, who were sometimes told by demographers that they were baby boomers, but who did not feel like boomers.
Strauss also noted that around the time Coupland’s 1991 novel was published the symbol «X» was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released in 1992, and that the name «Generation X» ended up sticking. The «X» refers to an unknown variable or to a desire not to be defined. World War II baby boom, representing a generational change from the baby boomers, but there is debate over what this means because the end date of the baby boomer generation is disputed.
They found much of the cultural identity of the baby boomer generation is associated with the «older boomers», while half of the «younger boomers» were averse to being associated with the baby boomer cohort and a third of those born between 1956 and 1964 actively identified as members of Generation X. 1964 do not self-identify as boomers, and that they are culturally distinct from boomers in terms of shared historical experiences.
1977 but possibly as late as 1980. Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift.
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- On the American television program Survivor, for their 33rd season, subtitled Millennials vs.
- Gen X, the «Gen X tribe» consisted of individuals born between 1963 and 1982.
- Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth year ranging from as early as 1960 to as late as 1965, and with the final birth year ranging from as early as 1976 to as late as 1984.
- Due in part to the frequent birth-year overlap and resulting incongruence existing between attempts to define Generation X and Millennials, a number of individuals born in the late 1970s or early 1980s see themselves as being «between» the two generations.
- Millennial cusp years include Xennials, The Lucky Ones, Generation Catalano, and the Oregon Trail Generation.
- Generation X is a relatively smaller demographic cohort «sandwiched» between two larger demographic cohorts, the Baby Boomers and the Millennials, although debate regarding exact date range defining makes it difficult to precisely define this cohort’s relative size.
- The birth control pill, which was introduced in the early 1960s, was a contributing factor to the declining birth rates seen in this generation.
In the United States, increased immigration x64 offset declining birth rates and contributed to making Generation Origin an ethnically and culturally diverse demographic cohort. In a 2012 article for the Joint Center crack X86 Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the «Census counted 82. 1 million» Gen Xers in the U.
The Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers, Xers, and Millennials «cover equal 20-year age spans». Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Demographers William Strauss and Neil Howe, who authored several books on generations, including the 1993 book, 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail? Generation X reported that Gen Xers were children at a time when society was less focused on children and more focused on adults.
Gen Xers were children during a time of increasing divorce rates, with divorce rates doubling in the mid-1960s, before peaking in 1980. Strauss and Howe described a cultural shift where the long held societal value of staying together for the sake of the children was replaced with a societal value of parental and individual self-actualization. Strauss wrote that society «moved from what Leslie Fiedler called a 1950s-era ‘cult of the child’ to what Landon Jones called a 1970s-era ‘cult of the adult’.
The Gen X childhood coincided with the sexual revolution, which Susan Gregory Thomas described in her book In Spite of Everything as confusing and frightening for children in cases where a parent would bring new sexual partners into their home. Thomas also discussed how divorce was different during the Gen X childhood, with the child having a limited or severed relationship with one parent following divorce, often the father, due to differing societal and legal expectations. In the 1970s, only 9 U. S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by origin X64 X86 crack 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mid-1980s.
The time period of the Gen X childhood saw an increase in latchkey children, leading to the terminology of the «latchkey generation» for Generation X. These latchkey children lacked adult supervision in the hours between the end of the school day and when a parent returned home from work in the evening, and for longer periods of time during the summer.
Latchkey children became common among all socioeconomic demographics, but were particularly common among middle and upper class children. The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of this time would be latchkey children, due to increased maternal participation in the workforce at a time before childcare options outside the home were widely available.
The United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council described Generation X as «Thatcher’s children» because the cohort grew up while Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, «a time of social flux and transformation». In South Africa, Gen Xers spent their formative years of the 1980s during the «hyper-politicized environment of the final years of apartheid».
In the US, Generation X was the first cohort to grow up post-integration. They were described in a marketing report by Specialty Retail as the kids who «lived the civil rights movement.
They were among the first children to be bused to attain integration in the public school system. In the 1990s, demographer William Strauss reported Gen Xers were «by any measure the least racist of today’s generations». In the US, Title IX, which passed in 1972, provided increased athletic opportunities to Gen X girls in the public school setting. In Russia, Generation Xers are referred to as «the last Soviet children», as the last children to come of age prior to the downfall of communism in their nation and prior to the fall of the Soviet Union.
Politically, in the United States, the Gen X childhood coincided with a time when government funding tended to be diverted away from programs for children and often instead directed toward the elderly population, with cuts to Medicaid and programs for children and young families, and protection and expansion of Medicare and Social Security for the elderly population. One in five American children grew up in poverty during this time. These programs for the elderly were not tied to economic need. Congressman David Durenberger criticized this political situation, stating that while programs for poor children and for young families were cut, the government provided «free health care to elderly millionaires».
Gen Xers came of age or were children during the crack epidemic, which disproportionately impacted urban areas and also the African American community in the US. Drug turf battles increased violent crime, and crack addiction impacted communities and families. Between 1984 and 1989, the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 doubled in the US, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased almost as much.
The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care. Generation X was the first cohort to come of age with MTV and are sometimes called the MTV Generation.