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This article is about bluetooth Stack For Windows crack wireless technology standard. For the medieval king of Denmark, see Harald Bluetooth.
UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2. Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.
1, but no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device.
A network of patents apply to the technology, which are licensed to individual qualifying devices. The development of the «short-link» radio technology, later named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden, and by Johan Ullman. Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund.
Краткий анализ на «Bluetooth Stack For Windows crack»
- The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology.
- Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom and, according to legend, also introduced Christianity.
- The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers.
- At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G.
- Bengtsson’s historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
- The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard.
- Bluetooth operates at frequencies between 2402 and 2480 MHz, or 2400 and 2483.
5 MHz including guard bands 2 MHz wide at the bottom end and 3. 5 MHz wide at the top.
4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum.
Bluetooth divides transmitted data into packets, and transmits each packet on one of 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. Bluetooth low energy uses 2 MHz spacing, which accommodates 40 channels. Since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.
8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. One master may communicate with bluetooth Stack For Windows crack to seven slaves in a piconet.
All devices share the master’s clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.
Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 µs, and two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 µs. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots. The slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots.
Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long, but in all cases the master’s transmission begins in even slots and the slave’s in odd slots. The above is valid for «classic» BT. Bluetooth Low Energy, introduced in the 4.
The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices simultaneously play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. The specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets.
Bluetooth is a standard wire-replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low-power consumption, with a short range based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Range is power-class-dependent, but effective ranges vary in practice. See the table on the right. The effective range varies depending on propagation conditions, material coverage, production sample variations, antenna configurations and battery conditions.
Most Bluetooth applications are for indoor conditions, where attenuation of walls and signal fading due to signal reflections make the range far lower than specified line-of-sight ranges of the Bluetooth products. Most Bluetooth applications are battery-powered Class 2 devices, with little difference in range whether the other end of the link is a Class 1 or Class 2 device as the lower-powered device tends to set the range limit. In some cases the effective range of the data link can be extended when a Class 2 device is connecting to a Class 1 transceiver with both higher sensitivity and transmission power than a typical Class 2 device. Mostly, however, the Class 1 devices have a similar sensitivity to Class 2 devices.
Connecting two Class 1 devices with both high sensitivity and high power can allow ranges far in excess of the typical 100m, depending on the throughput required by the application. Some such devices allow open field ranges of up to 1 km and beyond between two similar devices without exceeding legal emission limits. Manufacturers’ implementations can be tuned to provide the range needed for each case.
To use Bluetooth wireless technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles, which are definitions of possible applications and specify general behaviors that Bluetooth-enabled devices use to communicate with other Bluetooth devices. These profiles include settings to parameterize and to control the communication from the start. Adherence to profiles saves the time for transmitting the parameters anew before the bi-directional link becomes effective. There are a wide range of Bluetooth profiles that describe many different types of applications or use cases for devices.